Fruits and flowering plants come in three basic types:
- Annuals grow in a single season or year and die after they flower. They only flower once.
- Biennials grow for two seasons, and flower and die the second year. They only flower once.
- Perennials grow for many years and can flower repeatedly.
Flowers may be single, or grouped together to form an inflorescence. The main types of inflorescences are:
- Catkins – hang down with flowers close together.
- Umbels – have several flowers all attached to the same point in a semi-circle.
- Spike – has flowers joined directly to a tall stem
- Raceme – has flowers on stalks alternating up the stem
- Corymb – has flowers that form a flat surface, yet are attached to different points of the stem.
Flowering plants are either :
- Short day ( long night ) plants : flower in winter/spring eg poinsettia, strawberry
- Long day ( short night ) plants : flower in summer eg lettuce, tomato
- Day neutral plants : flower any time of year eg peas, corn, rice
Moreover, Plants actually measure the length of the night, not the length of the day. As a result, a flash of bright light at night will reset a plant’s internal clock.
Hence, The length of the night is measured using a protein: phytochrome, which occurs in two forms in a plant:
Pr ( absorbs red light ) and Pfr ( absorbs far red light ).
The seed develops inside a fruit, after pollination. The fruit is made up of three layers: First, the exocarp is the outer layer. In the second place, the mesocarp forms the fleshy tissue in the middle and last but not the least, they endocarp surrounds the seed.
Types of fruit
Pome – most of the fruits are formed from the receptacle (under the flower) for instance; pear, apple etc.
Drupe – has fleshy fruit and a single seed with a hard endocarp eg peaches, coconut and olives
Berry – has many seeds eg tomatoes, peppers and cucumber but except strawberries.
Aggregate fruit – develop from one flower with many pistils eg strawberries.
Legumes – split along two sides eg beans, peas
Capsules – are dry fruit that have several carpels eg orchids
Nuts – have one seed and a hard pericarp eg acorns
Grains – have the fruit and seed joined closely together eg wheat, rice, barley.
Multiple fruits – come from several different flowers joined together eg pineapples.
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